The PAH Initiative Learning Library

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Educational videos / Presentations

PAH Basics Video (8 minutes)

Listen as Dr. Lana Melendres-Groves, a PAH expert, explains the basics of PAH and how the heart, lungs, and blood vessels work together as a cardiovascular team.

Click to expand transcript

[Video title: PAH Basics, Part 1 in the PAH Initiative Video Series]

Hi, I’m Dr Lana Melendres-Groves, a pulmonary arterial hypertension specialist and director of the pulmonary hypertension program at the University of New Mexico. I have been treating pulmonary diseases for over 12 years with a specialization in PAH for over 9 years. My clinic has treated over 5,000 patients and I currently oversee 250 PAH patients on PAH-specific medicines. In this video, we’ll cover the basics of pulmonary arterial hypertension, also known as PAH. Understanding what PAH is can be confusing because even healthcare providers may tell you different things about it. Some may say your heart doesn’t work as well as it needs to. It’s really about the blood vessels. The real problem is in the lungs or it’s just hypertension. This is why it’s so important to find an experienced PAH specialist to help you. A PAH specialist is a cardiologist or pulmonologist who has had specific training in PAH and understands how challenging this disease really is.

The heart, lungs, and blood vessels all work together as a cardiovascular team and PAH affects each of these vital organs. So let’s start with the heart. You may already know that the heart has 4 chambers. Two chambers are called atria and receive blood from the other parts of the body and the other 2 chambers are called ventricles and pump blood out of the heart. The right atrium receives blue, oxygen-poor blood from the body and the right ventricle pumps that oxygen-poor blood to the lungs where it can pick up oxygen. The left atrium receives red, oxygen-rich blood from the lungs and then the left ventricle pumps the oxygen-rich blood to the rest of the body. Although cardiac diseases, including heart attacks, are more common in the left ventricle, it’s actually the right ventricle that is affected in people who have PAH.

Again, the heart, lungs, and blood vessels all work together. PAH begins when the walls of the blood vessels in the lungs thicken and become more narrow. Because the blood vessels become more narrow, it’s harder for the blood to pass through them. The reduced blood flow that is caused by the narrowed vessels creates increased pressure on the right side of the heart. The right side of the heart tries to compensate by working harder to pump blood through the vessels and into the lungs. Over time, the heart struggles to maintain this level of intensity. It’s like asking your heart to run a marathon every minute of every day and PAH symptoms result. Because sending blood to the lungs is somewhat easier than pumping blood to the entire body, the right ventricle was not designed to work quite as hard as the left, but working so hard to compensate for narrowed blood vessels causes the right side of the heart to enlarge and eventually to weaken so that it wears out and is no longer able to keep up. One analogy that can help with understanding PAH is traffic on a 5-lane highway.

The highway represents the blood vessels and the cars represent the blood cells. Watch what happens to the traffic flow when there is construction. If 2 lanes on the 5-lane highway are closed for construction, it’s harder for the cars to get through. Traffic flow slows down and the cars back up behind the lane closure, causing a traffic jam. In your body, narrowed blood vessels cause the blood flow to slow and back up into the right side of the heart as it struggles to keep up. This means less blood is able to get pushed through the lungs to pick up oxygen. Because the heart has to work harder to pump blood into the lungs, people with PAH begin to experience symptoms such as chest pain and shortness of breath. Although symptoms help doctors diagnose PAH. They are also a critical element of monitoring PAH over time.

Knowing about the symptoms you experience and when you experience them helps your healthcare provider assess whether your condition is improving, staying the same, or getting worse. This is key to determining the right treatment plan. You are likely familiar with at least some of the PAH symptoms like shortness of breath, a rapid, hard, irregular heartbeat, chest pain, swollen ankles, a swollen abdomen, or even dizziness and fainting. Over time, as the disease progresses, the symptoms get worse and you may find that you cannot do as much physically. It’s important to note that symptoms may not always reflect whether PAH is progressing or how it is affecting your body. Even if your symptoms remain the same, there still may be more you can do to help improve how you feel. Sometimes people with PAH try to ignore their symptoms until they become more extreme, but when it comes to PAH, it’s important to speak with your doctor about how you are doing.

Effectively treating PAH sooner rather than later can make a difference in how quickly your PAH progresses. So it’s important to be your own advocate and to find an experienced PAH doctor. Not all pulmonologists and cardiologists have specialized PAH training, so it’s important to find a PAH doctor who understands each of the available PAH medications.

Things to remember: PAH is a disease of high blood pressure within the blood vessels of the lungs that leads to right heart damage and eventually heart failure. The symptoms that you feel are a reflection of how your heart is struggling and they will not improve without treatment. PAH is a progressive disease, meaning that it will get worse over time, but the rate of progression varies. Be proactive by finding a doctor who specializes in PAH and ask about things you may be able to do now to reduce symptoms and help slow disease progression. I’ll leave you with this tip: Keep a symptom journal. Either on paper, on your computer, on a mobile device. That way you won’t have to try and remember everything that happens between doctor visits. This will help you and your healthcare provider determine whether your PAH symptoms are changing over time and what treatment options may be best for you.

Thank you for watching PAH Basics. Watch the next video from the PAH Initiative video series to learn about working with your PAH doctor to set goals for treatment.

[End of video: PAH Initiative, Sponsored by United Therapeutics, Committed to Improving the Lives of Patients. For more resources about PAH, please visit Copyright 2019 United Therapeutics Corporation. All rights reserved.]

PAH Basics Video
PAH Basics Video
(8 minutes)

Listen as Dr. Lana Melendres-Groves, a PAH expert, explains the basics of PAH…

PAH Treatment Goals video
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PAH treatment options video
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PAH symptom tracker journal.

PAH Symptom Journal

Download this sheet to make it easy to track your symptoms. Knowing your symptoms can help your healthcare provider determine which treatments are right for you.

PAH patient questionnaire.

PAH Patient Questionnaire

This 5-question form can help you plan and initiate focused conversations with your healthcare provider.

PAH Doctor Discussion Tool.

PAH Doctor Discussion Tool

Use this discussion tool to plan the things you’d like to discuss with your healthcare team. It addresses topics like your symptoms, test results, and treatment options.

PAH and stress relief.

10 Simple Ways to Relieve Stress 

Some of the ways to relieve stress are obvious, like yoga. But music, gardening, laughter—and even chewing gum—can help you relax and ease your stress.

PAH low sodium diet.

Low-Sodium, PAH-Friendly Diets  

This 1-page guide provides websites full of recipes and tips that can help you cut back on salt. You’ll also learn to understand nutrition labels and find suggestions for those times when you’re dining at a restaurant or with friends.

PAH diet recipes.

Healthy Smoothie Recipes

Get more flavor in your diet with nutritious smoothies. These 8 smoothie recipes offer flavors like peanut butter banana, cherry chocolate, and key lime pie.

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